monachus guardian monk seal

Dedicated to Monk Seals and their Threatened Habitats

 

Monk Seal Fact Files

Mediterranean Monk Seal

(Monachus monachus)

References

Adamantopoulou, S. 2000. Network gathers data. The Monachus Guardian 3 (2): November 2000.

Adamantopoulou, S., E. Androukaki, P. Dendrinos and S. Kotomatas. 1999. Evidence on the Movements of the Mediterranean Monk Seal (Monachus monachus) in Greece. In: 13th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Maui, Hawaii, 28 Nov. – 3 Dec. 1999. The Society for Marine Mammalogy: 2.

Aguilar, A. 1998. Current status of Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) populations. Meeting of experts on the implementation of the action plans for marine mammals (monk seal and cetaceans) adopted within MAP. Arta, Greece, 29-31 October 1998. UNEP, Athens: 1-34.

Aguilar, A., M. Gazo, L.M. González, E. Grau, A. Borell and L.F. Lopez Jurado. 1995. Seasonality in haul-out behaviour and biological events in the monk seal (Monachus monachus) colony of Cabo Blanco. In: 11th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Orlando, Florida, 14-18 December 1995: 1-2.

Aguilar, A., L.M. González and L.F. Lopez-Jurado. 1998. The Mediterranean monk seal die-off in the Western Sahara. In: The World Marine Mammal Science Conference. Workshop on the Biology and Conservation of the World's Endangered Monk Seals, Monaco, 19-20 January 1998. The Society for Marine Mammalogy and The European Cetacean Society: 8.

Alessandrini, A. 1819. Bemerkungen ueber die Foetushuellen der Phoca bicolor. Deutsches Archiv fuer Physiologie 5: 604-616.

Anderson, S. 1978. A monk in retreat. New Scientist 78 (29 June): 906-908.

Anderson, S. 1979. Cave breeding in another phocid seal, Halichoerus grypus. pp. 151-155 in K. Ronald & R. Duguy, eds. First International Conference on the Mediterranean Monk Seal, Rhodes, Greece, 1978. Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K.

Androukaki, J. 2000. Letters to the editor. When fishermen save seals. The Monachus Guardian 3 (2): November 2000.

Androukaki, E. 2005a. Feeding regime in Mediterranean monk seal pup treatment: Problems, development, and current standard feeding program. Workshop: increasing the survival rate for Mediterranean monk seal pups under treatment, MOm/Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal, Athens 9 July 2005: 1-29.

Androukaki, E. 2005b. History of monk seal rehabilitation in Greece: facilities, cases treated, problems, results. Workshop: increasing the survival rate for Mediterranean monk seal pups under treatment, MOm/Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal, Athens 9 July 2005: 1-36.

Androukaki, E., S. Adamantopoulou, P. Dendrinos, E. Tounta and S. Kotomatas. 1999. Causes of mortality in the Mediterranean Monk Seal (Monachus monachus) in Greece. Contributions to the Zoogeography and Ecology of the Eastern Mediterranean Region 1: 405-411. [PDF pdf 47KB]

Androukaki, E., E. Fatsea, L. 't Hart, A.D.M.E. Osterhaus, E. Tounta and S. Kotomatas. 2002. Growth and development of Mediterranean monk seal pups during rehabilitation. Monachus Science Posters. The Monachus Guardian 5 (1): May 2002.

Anonymous. 1975. Dwindling Mediterranean Monk Seals. Oryx 13 (2): 115.

Anonymous. 1990. Urgent action meeting for safeguarding the Mediterranean Monk Seal as a species. 10-11 December 1990. Texel, The Netherlands: 1-11.

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Badosa, E. 1998. When does the Mediterranean monk seal moult? In: The World Marine Mammal Science Conference. Workshop on the Biology and Conservation of the World's Endangered Monk Seals. Monaco, 19-20 January 1998. The Society for Marine Mammalogy and The European Cetacean Society: 35.

Badosa, E., E. Grau, F. Aparicio, J.F. Layna and M.A. Cedenilla. 1998. Individual variation and sexual dimorphism of coloration in Mediterranean monk seal pups (Monachus monachus). Marine Mammal Science 14 (2): 390-393.

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Berkes, F. 1978. The possibility of movements of Monachus monachus between the coastal waters of Greece and Turkey. September 1978. Institute of Urban and Environmental Studies, Brock University, Ontario, Canada: 1-5 + 4 figs + 2 new figs.

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Boettger, C.R. 1951. Notizen zur Verbreitung und ueber die Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen der Moenchsrobbe (Monachus albiventer Boddaert). Zoologischer Anzeiger 147: 303-310.

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Borrell, A., A. Aguilar and T. Pastor. 1997. Organochlorine Pollutant Levels in Mediterranean monk seals from the Western Mediterranean and the Sahara Coast. Marine Pollution Bulletin 34 (7): 505-510.

Boudouresque, C.F. and J.R. Lefevre. 1988. Nouvelles données sur le statut du phoque moine Monachus monachus dans la region d' Oran (Algerie). GIS Posidonie Publ, Marseille, France: 1-30.

Boulva, J. 1975. Survey of the Mediterranean monk seal, Monachus monachus, in the western Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic. Report presented to the International Fund for Animal Welfare and to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. January 1975. Institut des Peches Maritimes, Sete, France:1-18 + App.

Boulva, J. 1979. Mediterranean Monk Seal. Mammals in the Seas. Pinniped species. Summaries and report on Sirenians. Rome, Italy, FAO Fisheries series N 5. 2: 95-100.

Boutiba, Z. 1996. Disappearing Species: The Case of the Monk Seal in Algeria. In: W.D. Swearingen & A. Bencherifa, eds. The North African Environment at Risk. Westview Press Inc., Boulder, Colorado & Oxford, UK: 191-204.

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Caltagirone, A. 1995. The Mediterranean Monk Seal. Council of Europe: 1-71 + pl. 1-6.

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Cebrian, D.M. 1993. A determination of the age of sexual maturity of the female Mediterranean monk seal by dissection of a tooth of a seal found drowned off Zakynthos, 1993. Project Results B.4. In: WWF Integrated Ionian Project for the Study of the Monk Seal in Zakynthos, GR 0034.02.: 1-3.

Cebrian, D.M. 1994. Pinniped breeding systems: a theoretical model and the case of the monk seal. Project Results B.5. In: WWF Integrated Ionian Project for the Study of the Monk Seal in Zakynthos, GR 0034.02, edited by A. Vlachoutsikou.: 1-6.

Cebrian, D., H. Fatsea and C. Mytilineou. 1990. Some Data on Biometry and Stomach Content of a Mediterranean Monk Seal found in Santorini Island Greece). Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Medit 32 (1): 237.

Cebrian D., E. Georgakopoulos-Gregoriades, N. Kalogeropoulos and R. Psyllidou-Giouranovits. 1994. Organochlorine levels in a Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus). Marine Pollution Bulletin 28 (3): 181-183.

Cedenilla M.A., I. Mozetich and P.F. de Larrinoa. 2002. Rescue, release and post-release monitoring of Weam. The Monachus Guardian 5 (1): May 2002.

Cedenilla M.A. and P.F. de Larrinoa. 2004a. Amrigue’s story, a rehabilitated seal. The Monachus Guardian 7 (1): June 2004.

Cedenilla M.A. and P.F. de Larrinoa. 2004b. Monk seal carcass in Banc D’Arguin National Park. The Monachus Guardian 7 (1): June 2004.

Cedenilla M.A. and P.F. de Larrinoa. 2004c. Rehabilitated seal ‘Weam’ found dead. The Monachus Guardian 7 (2): November 2004.

Coppola E. 2003. Another seal sighting in Puglia. The Monachus Guardian 6 (1): June 2003.

Costas, E. and V. Lopez-Rodas. 1998. Paralytic phycotoxins in monk seal mass mortality. Veterinary Record 142 (23): 643-644.

de Muizon, C. (1982). Phocid phylogeny and dispersal. Annals of the South African Museum 89(2): 175-213.

Dendrinos, P. 1998. Status of the populations and implementation of the action plan for the management of the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) in Greece. pp. 37-46 in UNEP/MAP Meeting of Experts on the Implementation of the Action Plans for Marine Mammals (Monk Seals and Cetaceans) Adopted Within MAP, Arta, Greece, 29-31 October 1998. UNEP, Athens.

Dendrinos, P. 2004. Fifteen years onboard “the Odyssey”. The Monachus Guardian 7 (2): November 2004.

Dendrinos, P., E. Tounta, S. Kotomatas and A. Kottas. 1994. Recent data on the Mediterranean Monk Seal population of the Northern Sporades. Bios (Macedonia/Greece) 2: 11-16.

Dendrinos, P., E. Tounta and S. Kotomatas. 1998. Status and Conservation of the Monk seal population in the National Marine Park of Alonnissos-N.Sporades, Greece. In: World Marine Mammal Science Conference, Workshop on the Biology and Conservation of the World's Endangered Monk Seals, Monaco, 19-20 January 1998. The Society for Marine Mammalogy & The European Cetacean Society: 14.

Dendrinos, P., S. Kotomatas and E. Tounta. 1999. Monk seal Pup Production in the National Marine Park of Alonissos-N.Sporades. Contributions to the Zoogeography and Ecology of the Eastern Mediterranean Region 1: 413-419.

Dendrinos, P., E. Tounta and S. Kotomatas. 2000. A field method for age estimation of Mediterranean monk seal pups. 13th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Maui, Hawaii. The Monachus Guardian 3 (2): November 2000.

Derry, J.F., J. Halley and J. Harwood. 1997. Implications of the 1997 mass mortality in the western Sahara for the viability and genetic diversity of the Mediterranean monk seal population in the Atlantic. In: J. Harwood, D. Lavigne & P.J.H. Reijnders, eds. Workshop on the causes and consequences of the 1997 mass mortality of Mediterranean monk seals in the Western Sahara, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 11-13 December 1997. IBN Scientific Contributions 11: 1-32.

Dieuzeide, R. 1927. Sur qeulques points d’anatomie du Phoque moine de la Mediterranee (Monachus albiventer Boddaert). Bull. Stat. Aquicult. et Peche, Trav. Publies, Castiglione, Algeria  (2): 215-249.

Dosi, A. 2000. Heavy metals in blubber and skin of Mediterranean monk seals, Monachus monachus from the Greek waters. MSc. Thesis, University of North Wales, Bangor, May 2000: 1-85. [PDF pdf 1.0MB]

Dosi, A., S. Adamantopoulou, P. Dendrinos, S. Kotomatas, E. Tounta and E. Androukaki. 2002. Analysis of heavy metals in blubber and skin of Mediterranean monk seals. The Monachus Guardian 5 (1): May 2002.

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Fernandez de Larrinoa, P.F., I. Mozetich and M.A. Cedenilla. 2002. Conservation actions on the Cabo Blanco Peninsula – a new approach. The Monachus Guardian 5 (2): November 2002.

Fernandez de Larrinoa, P.F. and M.A. Cedenilla. 2004. Third Monk Seal Recovery Plan meeting held in Dakhla. The Monachus Guardian 7 (2): November 2004.

Forcada, J., P.S. Hammond and A. Aguilar. 1999. Status of the Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus in the western Sahara and the implications of a mass mortality event. Marine Ecology Progress Series 188: 249-261.

Forcada, J. and A. Aguilar. 2000. Use of photographic identification in capture-recapture studies of Mediterranean monk seals. Marine Mammal Science 16(4): 767-793.

Francour, P., D. Marchessaux, A. Argiolas, P. Campredon and G. Vuignier. 1990. La population de phoque moine (Monachus monachus) de Mauritanie. Rev. Ecol. 45: 55-64.

Frankham R., J.D. Ballou and D.A. Briscoe. 2002. Introduction to conservation genetics. Cambridge University Press.

Gazo, M. 1996. Diving activity of lactating and recently weaned pups of Mediterranean Monk seals on the Cabo Blanco Peninsula. In: P.G.H. Evans, ed. 10th Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society, Lisbon, Portugal, 11-13 March 1996. Cambridge University Press: 316-320.

Gazo M. 1998: Diving activity data of one of the most endangered divers: a Mediterranean monk seal adult male. How to obtain the information  without disturbing the diver. P.G.H.Evans, ed.: European research on cetaceans, 11th annual conference of the European Cetacean Society, 10-12 March 1997: 302.

Gazo, M., T. Pastor, L.M. Gonzalez, F. Aparicio, J.F. Layna, M.A. Cedenilla, H.L. Cappozzo, A. Aguilar. 1998. From birth to independence: a compromising period for Mediterranean monk seal pups in the western Sahara colony. Workshop on the Biology and Conservation of the World’s Endangered Monk Seals. Abstracts. Monaco, 19-20 January 1998, 50 pp.

Gazo, M., J.F. Layna, F. Aparicio, M.A. Cedenilla, L.M. González and A. Aguilar. 1999. Pupping season, perinatal sex ratio and natality rates of the Mediterranean monk seal from the Cabo Blanco colony. Journal of Zoology 249: 393-401.

Gazo, M., F. Aparicio, M.A. Cedenilla, J.F. Layna and L.M. González. 2000a. Pup survival in the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) colony of the Cabo Blanco peninsula (western Sahara-Mauritania). Marine Mammal Science 16 (1): 158-168.

Gazo, M., L.M. González and E. Grau. 2000b. Age at first parturition in Mediterranean monk seal monitored long-term. Marine Mammal Science 16 (1): 257-260.

Gazo, M and A. Aguilar. 2005. Maternal attendance and diving behavior of a lactating Mediterranean monk seal. Marine Mammal Science 21 (2): 340-345.

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González, L.M., J.R. González, M.S. Felix, E. Grau, L.F. Lopez-Jurado and A. Aguilar. 1994. Pupping season and annual productivity of the Monk Seal (Monachus monachus) in 'Cabo Blanco' peninsula (Western Sahara-Mauritania). In: P.G.H. Evans, ed. Proceedings of the 8th Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society, Montpellier, France, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. European Research on Cetaceans 8: 281-283.

González, L.M., E. Grau, L.F. Lopez-Jurado, A. Aguilar and R. Samaranch. 1996. Variation with age and sex of pelage coloration in monk seals (Monachus monachus) from Cabo Blanco. In: P.G.H. Evans, ed. 10th Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society, Lisbon, Portugal, Cambridge University Press. European Research on Cetaceans 10: 313-315.

González, L.M., A. Aguilar, L.F. Lopez-Jurado and E. Grau. 1997. Status and Distribution of theMediterranean Monk Seal Monachus monachus on the 'Cabo Blanco' Peninsula (Western Sahara-Mauritania) in 1993-1994. Biological Conservation 80: 225-233.

González, L.M., B. Heredia, A. Araujo, I. Robinson, J. Worms, P.S. Miller and U. Seal (eds.). 2002. Population and Habitat Viability Assessment for the Mediterranean Monk Seal (Monachus monachus) in the Eastern Atlantic. Workshop Report. Apple Valley, MN: IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group: 1-126. [PDF pdf 1.4 MB]

Grau, E., A. Aguilar, J. González, M. San Felix, L.M. González and L.F. Lopez-Jurado. 1994. Photoidentification of Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus) in the coast of the southern Sahara. In: European Cetacean Society, ed. Proceedings of the 8th Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society, Montpellier, France, 2-5 March 1994. Cambridge University Press: 279-280.

Gruppo Foca Monaca. 2002. Monk seal returns. The Monachus Guardian 5 (2): November 2002.

Güçlüsoy, H. 2004. Pup catching plans draw fire. Letters to the Editor, The Monachus Guardian 7 (1): June 2004.

Güçlüsoy, H., W.M. Johnson and A.A. Karamanlidis. 2002. Mediterranean monk seal behaviour – can we afford to discard anecdotal accounts? The Monachus Guardian. 5 (2): November 2002.

Güçlüsoy, H., C.O. Kiraç, N.O. Veryeri and Y. Savas. 2004a. Status of the Mediterranean Monk Seal, Monachus monachus (Hermann, 1779) in the Coastal Waters of Turkey. E.U. Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences 21 (3-4): 201–210. [PDF pdf 925KB]

Güçlüsoy, H. and Y. Savas. 2003a. Status of the Mediterranean monk seal, Monachus monachus in the Foça Pilot Monk Seal Conservation Area, Turkey. Zoology in the Middle East. 28: 5-16.

Güçlüsoy, H, and Y. Savas, 2003b. Interaction between monk seals Monachus monachus (Hermann, 1779) and marine fish farms in the Turkish Aegean and management of the problem. Aquaculture Res. 34: 777-783.

Güçlüsoy, H., Y. Savas, N.O. Veryeri, A. Bolat, C.O. Kiraç, N.Veryeri, Ç. Akçura, Y. Çaglayan, Y. Aslan, Ç. Öner and U. Yolak. 2004b. Akdeniz’de Biyoçesitlilik Hassas Noktalarin Korunmasi: Türkiye Proje Sonuçlari. In: E. Özhan & H. Evliya, eds. Türkiye’nin Kiyi ve Deniz Alanlari V. Ulusal Konferansi, Türkiye Kiyilari 04 Konferansi Bildiriler Kitabi, Adana, 4-7 May 2004. pelin Ofset Tipo Matbaacilik, Ankara, 1: 63-71.

Gücü. A. 1999. Wanted: Recovering Fish Stocks. The Monachus Guardian 2 (1): May 1999.

Gücü. A. 2000. Cilician Basin responding to treatment. The Monachus Guardian 3 (2): November 2000.

Gücü. A. 2001. No-Fish-More-Fish. The Monachus Guardian 4 (1): May 2001.

Gücü, A. 2003. The Cilician monk seal colony is growing. The Monachus Guardian 6(2): December 2003.

Gücü A.C., G. Gücü and H. Orek. 2004. Habitat use and preliminary demographic evaluation of the critically endangered Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) in the Cilician Basin (Eastern Mediterranean). Biological Conservation 16 (3): 417-431.

Gücü, A. and M. Ok. 2004b. Arab the pilgrim. The Monachus Guardian 7 (1): June 2004.

Hendey, Q.B. 1972. The Evolution and dispersal of the Monachinae (Mammalia - Pinnipedia). Annals of the South African Museum 59 (5): 99-113.

Henderson, R.J., N. Kalogeropoulos and M.N. Alexis. 1994. The lipid composition of selected tissues from a Mediterranean Monk seal, Monachus monachus. Lipids 29 (8): 577-582.

Hermann, J. 1779. Beschreibung der Muenchs-Robbe. Beschaeftigungen der Berlinischen Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde 4 (XIX): 456-509, pl. 12-13.

Hernandez, M., I. Robinson, A. Aguilar, L.M. González, L.F. Lopez-Jurado, M.I. Reyero, E. Cacho, J. Franco, V. Lopez-Rodas and E. Costas. 1998. Did algal toxins cause monk seal mortality? Nature 393 (6680): 28-29.

Hiby, A.R., A. Panou, J.S. Jeffery, R. Parkes and T. Arapis. 1987. Results of Surveys in Kefallonia and Techniques for Monitoring Abundance. In: J. Harwood, ed. Population biology of the Mediterranean monk seal in Greece. Natural Environmental Research Council. Sea Mammal Research Unit, Cambridge, UK: 19-39.

Ibanez, J.M. 1981. La Foca monge (Monachus monachus). Memorias do Museu do Mar/Serie Zoologica 1 (10): 1-12 + 3 plates.

Israëls, L.D.E. 1992. Thirty Years of Mediterranean Monk Seal Protection – A Review. Mededelingen 28: 1-65.

IUCN. 2000. Monachus monachus. IUCN RedList of Threatened Species. http://www.redlist.org.

IUCN/UNEP. 1988. The Mediterranean monk seal (P.J.H. Reijnders, M.N. de Visscher & E. Ries,eds.). Marine Mammal Action Plan Series. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland: 1-59.

Jacobs, J. and A. Panou. 1988. Conservation of the Mediterranean Monk Seal, Monachus monachus, in Kefalonia, Ithaca and Lefkada Islands, Ionian Sea, Greece. Final report for the Institut Royal des Sciences de Belgique, Brussels, December 1988. Institute of Zoology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany: 1-221.

Jacobs, J. and A. Panou. 1990. Monk seal Conservation in the Eastern Mediterranean. Munich, Germany, Institute of Zoology, University of Munich.

Johnson, W. M. 1988. The Monk Seal Conspiracy. Heretic Books, London: 1-206. Internet edition: http://www.iridescent-publishing.com.

Johnson, W.M. 1993. Hermit of the Aegean. BBC Wildlife Magazine 11 (7) July 1993: 38-45.

Johnson, W.M. 1998. Monk Seal Myths in Sardinia, The Monachus Guardian 1 (1): May 1998.

Johnson, W.M. 2001a. The islands at the end of the line. The Monachus Guardian 4 (2): November 2001.

Johnson, W.M. 2001b. All at sea – adrift in the Northern Sporades Marine Park. The Monachus Guardian 4 (2): November 2001.

Johnson, W.M. 2002. Honoured in ancient Greece. The Monachus Guardian 5 (1): May 2002.

Johnson, W.M. 2004. Monk seals in post-classical history. The role of the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) in European history and culture, from the fall of Rome to the 20th century. Mededelingen 39. The Netherlands Commission for International Nature Protection, Leiden: 1-91, 31 figs. [PDF edition pdf 2.0MB]

Johnson, W.M. 2005. In echoes of the past, the sound of the present. The Monachus Guardian 8 (1): May 2005.

Johnson, W.M. (ed). 1998. Monk seal and coastal fisheries study on Zakynthos. The Monachus Guardian 1 (2): December 1998.

Johnson, W.M. (ed). 2002. International workshop wrestles with Atlantic issues. The Monachus Guardian 5 (1): May 2002.

Johnson, W.M. (ed). 2003. Mystery at RAC/SPA. The Monachus Guardian 6 (2): December 2003.

Johnson, W.M. (ed). 2004a. Doubts confront management authority on Alonissos. The Monachus Guardian 7 (1): June 2004.

Johnson, W.M. (ed). 2004b. Greek protected areas in limbo despite prime minister’s assurances. The Monachus Guardian 7 (2): November 2004.

Johnson, W.M. (ed). 2004c. Europe’s cutest critter. The Monachus Guardian 7 (1): June 2004.

Johnson, W.M. (ed). 2004d. Greeks and Turks join forces in rescue project. The Monachus Guardian 7 (2): November 2004.

Johnson, W.M. (ed). 2004e. Clear blue horizon for Dimitris. The Monachus Guardian 7 (1): June 2004.

Johnson, W.M. (ed). 2004f. Orphaned seal criss-crosses the Sporades Marine Park, sets new diving record. The Monachus Guardian 7 (2): November 2004.

Johnson, W.M. and A.A. Karamanlidis. 2000. When fishermen save seals. The Monachus Guardian 3 (1): May 2000.

Johnson, W.M. and D.M. Lavigne. 1994. Captive Breeding and the Mediterranean Monk Seal – A Focus on Antibes Marineland. International Marine Mammal Association Inc., Guelph, Canada: 1-44. [PDF pdf 700 KB]

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